Camera Movements and what they do
Camera movements, zooms and focus pulls are used like commas, semi-colons, colons, dashes or brackets within the audiovisual sentence. These defined, predetermined movements are used to reveal new information within the individual shot (the core audiovisual sentence).
They are also used to change the dramatic arrangement of characters (e.g. moving from an inferior low level to a superior high level) or to reveal new aspects of the setting or situation.
Push in / Pull back – here the camera is pushed towards the action or pulled back (whether manually or digitally) often to subtly suggest an increasing affinity or dislike for a character as a clip or scene progresses. The following examples are from the films 'Les Crayons and 'Le Loup Blanc':
Pan – here the camera swivels smoothly on the tripod head. The following example is from the film 'StrictEternum':
Tilt – the camera is tilted up or down on the tripod head or other camera gripping equipment . The following example is from the film 'StrictEternum':
Dolly – the camera is moved on its support along some form of track to follow the action. The following example is from the film 'StrictEternum':
Tracking – here the camera follows the characters (this can be filmed hand-held for a documentary feel or using a sling or steadicam). The following example is from the film 'On S'Embrasse':
Zoom In or Zoom Out – lenses zoom in or out to change our spatial and emotional relationship to the characters. The following examples are from the films 'La Apertura' and '00h17':
Crane – here the camera is moved through the air using a crane, jib or aerial track. The following examples are from the films 'StrictEternum' and 'Men at Work':